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Artificial Intelligence: Camera Control

A Versatile Constraint-Based Camera System

Julien Hamaide (10Tacle Studios Belgium/Elsewhere Entertainment)
AI Game Programming Wisdom 4, 2008.
Abstract: This article extends "Autonomous Camera Control with Constraint Satisfaction Methods" written by Bourne and Sattar and published in AI Game Programming Wisdom 3. It proposes a solution to several problems we encountered during the development of a 3D platform game. One important problem we faced was the shaking of the camera position. We have studied the problem and extracted a set of mathematical conditions to ensure stability. A special set of mathematical conditions are applied to both visibility and collision constraints. The original system allows the camera to move in the entire world. Our project needed a scripted path, thus we proposed a solution to apply the constraint-based camera to limited space such as planes and splines. Speed limiting and using the solver for orientation is explored as future work.

Autonomous Camera Control with Constraint Satisfaction Methods

Owen Bourne and Abdul Sattar (Institute for Integrated and Intelligent Systems)
AI Game Programming Wisdom 3, 2006.
Abstract: Producing a robust autonomous camera that can interact with the dense and dynamic environments of interactive games is a difficult and tricky process. Avoiding occlusions, displaying multiple targets, and coherent movements are all problems that are difficult to solve. The constraint satisfaction approach can be used to effectively solve these problems while providing a number of benefits, including extendibility, robustness, and intelligence. This article covers the theory and implementation details for a fully autonomous constraint-based camera system that can be used in arbitrary environments. The included source-code demonstrates the use of the camera system in an interactive environment.

Realistic Camera Movement in a 3D Car Simulator

Barnabas Aszodi, Szabolcs Czuczor (Budapest University of Technology, Conputer Graphics Group)
Game Programming Gems 5, 2005.

Third-Person Camera Navigation

Jonathan Stone (Double Fine Productions)
Game Programming Gems 4, 2004.

An AI Approach to Creating an Intelligent Camera System

Phil Carlisle (Team17 Software Ltd.)
AI Game Programming Wisdom 2, 2003.
Abstract: In this article, we will attempt to outline one method of implementing a camera system capable of handling a diverse and dynamic three-dimensional environment. We will detail the approaches taken during development of a to-be-released title, outlining the issues we encountered and how these were overcome.

A Modular Camera Architecture for Intelligent Control

Sandeep Kharkar (Microsoft Corporation)
AI Game Programming Wisdom 2, 2003.
Abstract: Cameras play a vital role in the user experience of any game. A robust camera solution can make the difference between a game that is awkward to play and a game that plays smoothly and feels great. Unfortunately, cameras tend to be a low priority item in many game development schedules and the effort is limited to the point where the cameras stop being a nuisance. One of the reasons that the efforts stop early is the lack of a solid architecture that allows rapid, data driven experimentation with camera behaviors.

This article presents a component based camera architecture that allows non-programmers to take over the development of cameras at the point where they make the transition between technical coding and creative effort. The architecture will demonstrate the use of common AI techniques to enhance the robustness and creativity of the camera solution for any game. The techniques presented in the article will primarily benefit games that have a third-person perspective, but will also provide useful tips for other types of games.

Camera AI for Replays

Sandeep V. Kharkar (Microsoft)
AI Game Programming Wisdom, 2002.

Smooth C2 Quaternion-based Flythrough Paths

Alex Vlachos (ATI Research), John Isidoro
Game Programming Gems 2, 2001.

The Vector Camera

David Paull (Tanzanite Software)
Game Programming Gems, 2000.
Abstract: The vector camera is a generalized form of the matrix-based camera found in many traditional graphics engines. Matrices are often difficult to read due to the fact that they typically hold several operations concatenated together. The vector camera uses only simple vectors to describe its orientation to the overall graphics pipeline. This article describes the how to construct a vector camera and how to manipulate it.

Camera Control Techniques

Dante Treglia (Nintendo of America)
Game Programming Gems, 2000.
Abstract: This article outlines a few basic techniques that can be used to develop the proper camera model for your game. In addition to basics, a scripted camera traveling on various curves (B-Spline, Catmull-Rom spline) is also discussed along with issues such as zooming, dampening, and the use of quaternions.

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